Educational Articles: Research & Studies

10 Best Natural Foot Health Tools & Tips

Posted By Robyn Hughes, ND

10 best natural foot health tools & tips

The need for natural and conservative alternatives to conventional foot and toe treatments has never been greater. According to the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, approximately 43.1 million Americans have foot problems, and the cost of foot surgery to correct problems associated with improper footwear—bunions, hammertoes, corns and calluses, among others—is about $2 billion per year. The... Read more

Bunions & Heredity

Posted By Marty Hughes, DC

Bunions and heredity

In a lot of cases, people assume they are predisposed to developing bunions because their older relatives developed bunions. But it's impossible to state that bunions are hereditary if all the members of one's family have worn shoes with tapering toe boxes. Shoes with this injurious design element hold the big toe in a bunion configuration for prolonged periods and are the... Read more


Classic Study #1: A Comparison of Barefooted & Shoe-Wearing Peoples

Posted By Marty Hughes, DC

This is the first installment in what will be an ongoing series of articles examining classic research studies in the field of natural foot form and function. Many of the articles that will be reviewed here were published in reputable journals that still exist today. Many of these studies, which range in size and design, were published over 40, 50, 60, or, in this case, 100 years... Read more

Classic Study #2: Notes on Foot Disorders

Posted By Marty Hughes, DC

This is the second installment in our ongoing series in which we examine foot-related research studies published many decades ago. This study, conducted by Earl T. Engle and Dudley J. Morton, is called “Notes on Foot Disorders Among Natives of the Belgian Congo” and was published in The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery in 1931. The researchers were part of an Africa expedition sponsored by Columbia... Read more


Classic Study #3: Feet & Footprints of Solomon Islanders

Posted By Marty Hughes, DC

This is the third installment in our ongoing series in which we examine foot-related research studies published many decades ago. This study, conducted by Clifford S. James, is called “Footprints and Feet of Natives of the Solomon Islands” and was published in The Lancet in 1939. The researcher, James, worked in the Solomon Islands region for over a decade. This study was conducted out of the Melanesian... Read more

Correct Toes & Balance

Posted By Marty Hughes, DC

Users of Correct Toes toe spacers experience many health benefits, including improved toe alignment and foot structure, increased intrinsic foot muscle strength, enhanced foot and toe circulation, and the successful treatment and prevention of a variety of chronic foot problems. One benefit of this device that’s sometimes overlooked is its ability to improve balance—a particularly important benefit for athletes and the elderly. This article discusses in detail... Read more


Foot Health Research & Resources

Posted By Marty Hughes, DC

Listed below are numerous journal articles, magazine and blog articles, and books that support a barefoot or minimalist shoe model for injury-free walking or running. These studies and books discuss the merits of barefoot living and the injuries commonly associated with the use of conventional footwear. Some of the articles discuss specific conditions, such as bunions, plantar fasciosis, and knee osteoarthritis. This body of work, in combination... Read more