Educational Articles: Ankle

Achilles Tendinosis

Posted By Robyn Hughes, ND

The Achilles tendon is a strong cord made of fibrous connective tissue that attaches the calf muscle group to the calcaneus, or heel bone. The Achilles tendon is located at the lower end of the calf, and it is the continuation of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. This tendon is one of the strongest tendons in the body and is essential for performing many occupational and recreational... Read more


Posted By Robyn Hughes, ND

Arthritis, which literally means “joint pain,” is one of the leading causes of disability among Americans. Arthritis, including arthritis in the foot, toe, and ankle joints, can occur at any age, though certain types of arthritis may be more common in older or younger individuals. There is no cure for this health problem, though there are many treatment options available. Treating arthritis in its early stages may... Read more

Causes of Outer Foot Pain in Runners

Posted By Marty Hughes, DC

Outer foot pain is a symptom that may occur in runners, especially runners who record high weekly mileage or who use conventional athletic footwear. Numerous factors may contribute to outer foot pain in runners, including running shoes that contain injurious design features, excessive training (i.e., overtraining), an insufficient warm-up, and poor nutrition. Outer foot pain, while potentially debilitating for runners, typically responds to natural, noninvasive, and conservative... Read more


Posted By Robyn Hughes, ND

Diabetes is a chronic, or lifelong, condition in which the body is unable to maintain proper blood sugar levels. Foot problems are among the most common health concerns diabetics face. Several types of diabetes exist, yet they all may cause similar changes in the feet. Prolonged elevated blood sugar levels may lead to a serious health complication known as neuropathy—nerve damage or dysfunction. The nerves in the... Read more

How Minimalist Shoes Can Help Prevent Ankle Sprains

Posted By Marty Hughes, DC

How minimalist shoes can help prevent ankle sprains

Dr. Robyn and I are often stopped on hiking and running trails by fellow outdoor enthusiasts who notice our unique footwear choices. With puzzled looks on their faces, they ask us how we avoid spraining our ankles in such minimalist footwear on such uneven terrain. The truth is, minimalist shoe wearers are at a distinct advantage when... Read more

Pronation vs. Overpronation

Posted By Marty Hughes, DC

Pronation vs. overpronation

In this video, sports podiatrist and Correct Toes inventor Dr. Ray McClanahan examines pronation and explains the difference between pronation and overpronation. Pronation—the combination of three separate events in the foot and ankle, including subtalar eversion, ankle dorsiflexion, and forefoot abduction—is normal and natural, but it can lead to problems when it becomes excessive. Dr. Ray takes a closer look at what's... Read more

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

Posted By Robyn Hughes, ND

Tarsal bones are the short bones located in the midfoot and rearfoot that form a bridge between the ankle and the metatarsal bones. The tarsal tunnel is a space located just below the bony prominence on the inside of the ankle, or medial malleolus, and is made up of bone on the inside and the flexor retinaculum—a band of connective tissue—on the outside. Several important structures pass... Read more


Posted By Robyn Hughes, ND

Tendinitis occurs when tendons—the fibrous connective tissue structures that connect muscles to bones—become irritated and inflamed. Inflammation is the localized response by the body to injury or damage caused by chemical, physical, or biological agents. Most tendinitis treated by foot care professionals is caused by overuse, usually from repetitive work tasks or recreational sports. Foot and lower extremity tendinitis can significantly affect a person’s ability to perform... Read more